Gut bacteria and mind control: to fix your brain, fix your gut!

Brain friendly gut bacteria grow well when you eat some essential foods.

 

Transcript

0:04
right well thank you anyway rich for the
0:07
introduction so as rich said I’m going
0:09
to try and inform you a little bit about
0:12
what goes on in your gut and in
0:14
particular all the microbes that live in
0:16
your gut and why they’re so important
0:18
for your health and why under some
0:20
conditions they can actually cause quite
0:22
severe disease so there’s been a
0:26
significant shift in our understanding
0:28
of what causes disease and I think you
0:32
know traditionally we’ve always thought
0:34
of its to do with who we are our genes
0:37
and then the things we do as we go
0:40
through life so lifestyle and what we
0:43
eat and what we get exposed to in the
0:45
environment and it’s those two that come
0:47
together to either keep us healthy or to
0:51
cause disease but what’s apparent now is
0:54
that in the middle of this and that may
0:56
be involved in interpreting a lot of
0:58
these things that we do and eat our our
1:01
gut microbes and they’re a direct link
1:03
to our genetic material and they can in
1:06
turn influence how we react and respond
1:09
to things in the environment and how
1:11
they can keep us healthy or or not and
1:14
really the understanding of gut microbes
1:17
has really taken a fantastic leap since
1:21
around 2000 this graph here shows the
1:24
number of scientific articles that have
1:26
been published about gut microbes and
1:28
you see they really started to take off
1:31
here around 2002 and that’s because of
1:35
Technology so before 2002 the only way
1:38
we could really identify and
1:41
characterize I’ve got microbes was by
1:43
what we could culture on a petri dish
1:45
and since we now know that about 80
1:48
percent of our gut microbes can’t be
1:50
cultured that really isn’t a good
1:51
representation of what’s in our gut but
1:54
then with the advent of gene sequencing
1:56
technology we can now identify microbes
2:00
according to their genetic blueprint and
2:02
what’s apparent is that different types
2:04
of bacteria have a unique genetic
2:06
fingerprint so if we can identify the
2:08
fingerprint we can say whether or not
2:10
they’re present or absent and this as I
2:13
said has led to this huge explosion in
2:14
this area of research we can now
2:16
identify microbes we can
2:18
culture and so this has led to massive
2:21
interest in gut microbes and some of
2:24
these are very recent so the Daily Mail
2:28
thinks that healthy gut bacteria might
2:31
be linked to anxiety and then we’ve got
2:33
others that linking gut brain connection
2:35
autism probiotics as a means of treating
2:38
diseases and then a couple of books this
2:41
one has just come out and those of you
2:43
in the Institute will notice the
2:44
significance of broccoli on the front as
2:46
the Institute is responsible for
2:49
generating strains of broccoli that have
2:52
lots of nutrients good beneficial
2:54
nutrients in them but really the message
2:57
here is that what we eat influences our
3:00
microbes which in turn can influence our
3:02
brain function and keeping it normal but
3:05
as always we have to be aware of the
3:09
hype okay so whenever we read these
3:13
articles we need to have a couple of
3:15
things in mind that allow us to
3:17
determine whether or not you know
3:18
there’s some factual basis to it or
3:20
whether it’s hype and these are some of
3:23
the questions that I would say you need
3:25
to ask so the obvious one is well so
3:27
what do these differences they’re
3:31
detected do they really matter are the
3:34
changes a cause or a consequence of the
3:37
disease and of course we want to know
3:39
how it works what’s the mechanism so is
3:41
there anything in this article that
3:43
allows us to understand how it actually
3:45
works and then a lot of experiments are
3:47
carried out on animals because we can’t
3:49
do many interventions in humans for
3:51
ethical reasons
3:52
so another aeneas question is well is a
3:55
mouse a small human no it isn’t so we’ve
3:58
got to bear that in mind and then
3:59
obviously we’ve got to think all is
4:01
there something else they haven’t looked
4:02
at which could explain what they’re
4:04
describing so behavior in lifestyle
4:07
are two important things so I’m going to
4:09
try and sort of touch on some of these
4:11
things in the rest of my talk so this is
4:14
what I’m going to cover I think I need
4:16
to introduce the gut to you I’ll talk a
4:19
little bit about microbes some
4:20
interesting facts a little bit of trivia
4:22
and then how gut microbes may play a
4:26
role in determining what we eat and what
4:28
the consequences of what we are for our
4:30
health
4:31
well being and then how we actually
4:33
might manipulate they’ve got microbes to
4:35
improve or restore our health so that’s
4:38
what I call lawn care right start with
4:41
so did the guts mouth to the anus it’s a
4:45
long tube here’s a picture taken with an
4:49
endoscope and you can see it’s not as
4:51
smooth tube it’s got these ridges to it
4:54
the muscles this is what allows food to
4:56
be propelled through the guts but it’s
4:59
not a smooth chew it has lots of finger
5:02
like projections that we call villi that
5:04
stick into the lumen to capture
5:07
nutrients and absorb them so the tube is
5:11
quite long it’s like nine meters from
5:13
mouth to anus and somebody has taken the
5:18
trouble trying to calculate what the
5:19
surface area of all these villi are and
5:22
the outcome of that is it’s probably
5:24
about the size of a badminton court so
5:27
it’s an incredibly large area and it has
5:30
to be large in order to take up the
5:31
nutrients that are in your diet to keep
5:33
you healthy and then we also consider
5:37
the process of digestion and the gut is
5:39
in fact a massive bioreactor so we take
5:43
in foods plant material for examples and
5:46
they’ve broken down first of all in the
5:48
small intestine here where the small
5:51
simple sugars are absorbed and then the
5:54
larger more complex plant material that
5:57
we eat in our diet passes through into
6:01
the large bowel or the colon where it’s
6:03
fermented and it’s fermented by the
6:06
bacteria that live in the colon and the
6:09
end product of all of this is something
6:11
called short chain fatty acids which are
6:14
very important because they can provide
6:16
about 5 to 15 percent of our daily
6:19
energy requirements in some animals it’s
6:22
up to 30% so this has to be a very
6:25
efficient process to keep us alive
6:27
basically and the enzymes that are
6:30
responsible the proteins that digest
6:32
these food material and the
6:36
polysaccharides now we only have about
6:39
20 genes in our whole genome that will
6:43
allow that encode proteins
6:44
we’ll break down these carbohydrates but
6:46
one bacterial species this one in
6:49
particular Bacteroides has 260 and you
6:53
think there are thousand species so
6:55
that’s a vast number of proteins that
6:58
can digest the digest our food so the
7:01
bacteria that live in our colon are
7:02
ideally suited for processing our food
7:05
and extracting the maximum level of
7:08
nutrients from them so it’s a bioreactor
7:11
a little bit about the microbes so the
7:15
gut is packed full of microbes there is
7:17
no space that endoscope image I showed
7:20
you they’ve displaced and rinsed out all
7:23
the bacteria normally that will be
7:24
jam-packed with bacteria most of them
7:27
are floating free in lumen but a large
7:31
number of them actually make physical
7:33
contact with the cells that line our gut
7:37
so there’s actually some intimate
7:38
Association of these microbes with our
7:41
gut and there are two terms that we you
7:44
may come across we use to describe these
7:46
microbes the microbiota which is to
7:49
describe all the microorganisms that
7:51
live in the gut and there’s the
7:53
microbiome and that’s all the microbes
7:55
plus all their genes combined so
7:58
microbiota microbiome – as you may have
8:01
come across in a lot of these articles
8:04
but individually bacteria incredibly
8:06
small so this is a head of a pen under
8:08
an electron microscope and each of these
8:11
orange dots represents one bacterial
8:14
cell so you can see that you can get
8:17
lots of bacteria on the top on the tip
8:19
of a pin they’re incredibly small but
8:21
well though they’re small they make up
8:24
for that in their vast numbers so we
8:28
have about 10 trillion cells in our body
8:30
but we actually have ten times that
8:32
number of bacteria in our body and so on
8:36
this scale here we have enough cells it
8:37
would fill half of one of our legs all
8:40
the rest of the body will be filled up
8:41
with microbes bacteria and then if we
8:44
think about all the DNA that we have oh
8:47
this is an interesting quote sorry I
8:49
forgot about this this ninja just give
8:51
you an idea of the scope and scale of
8:52
the numbers here of bugs a bacteria in
8:55
our colon so just one linear centimetre
8:58
contains more bacteria than all the
9:00
humans that have ever been born it’s a
9:02
vast number of microbes and then the DNA
9:05
elements this is the big toe okay and
9:09
that represents the DNA in our body that
9:11
is actually ours okay so everything else
9:15
more than 99% of the DNA is bacterial
9:20
DNA so you know just think about that
9:24
that’s actually quite amazing really so
9:26
we are carrying around a lot of DNA but
9:29
very little of it is our own okay now
9:33
this is the audience participation bit
9:35
some trivia how much do you think all
9:39
the microbes in our body way don’t be
9:46
shy PhD students at the back come on how
9:51
much what
9:56
that’s not conferring su nope
10:04
anybody else kilogram closer to
10:10
kilograms two to three kilograms a lot
10:15
right a couple of bags sugar and if you
10:18
put it in a volume size about one and a
10:20
half liters and there’s about a thousand
10:25
different species thousand different
10:27
types packed in there and this is what
10:30
they need to keep them healthy about 50
10:33
to 65 grams of these things which are
10:36
sugars to keep them healthy so that
10:39
amount is needed every day just to keep
10:42
your microbes healthy and then you’ve
10:43
got all the other things that you need
10:45
to keep your body healthy and so a
10:48
product of all this metabolism is gas
10:54
so how much do you think we expel every
10:58
day and this is everybody so it’s not
11:00
just old men and teenagers everybody in
11:05
this room expelled gas how much do you
11:08
think we expel every day how many liters
11:16
how many five that’s a bit high anybody
11:20
else
11:24
one two four that’s a lot and of course
11:28
at the end of all this we have waste so
11:32
60% of your stool is made up of bacteria
11:35
live and dead okay so that’s trivia
11:41
interesting thing just before you have
11:43
your meal you can run through some of
11:44
these facts and figures but they are
11:47
very very important and we know they’re
11:49
very important because of animals that
11:52
we can keep germ-free so these are
11:54
animals that have never been exposed to
11:56
any microbes they’re sterile and when we
11:59
examine these animals they’re clearly
12:02
compromised they’re deficient so they
12:04
have nutritional deficiencies they don’t
12:07
grow but interesting they live longer so
12:11
if you want to live longer don’t eat
12:12
that’s the bottom line they have a
12:15
defective gut so their gut is not poor
12:17
properly formed so it’s leaky and their
12:21
immune system is very poorly developed
12:22
so they’re very susceptible to
12:24
infections and in fact if you introduce
12:27
a pathogen to these animals it can kill
12:29
them very quickly because they have no
12:31
protection no immunity and also their
12:34
development is affected as well so
12:37
clearly we’re already starting now to
12:38
move into the gut brain so that there
12:41
are really poor animals very sick so the
12:45
microbiota and the Mike Michaels are
12:47
very important so your microbiota is
12:51
unique to you it’s your identity it’s
12:54
like your fingerprint your microbes are
12:56
unique to you however the microbes you
13:01
have are shared with other family
13:03
members so there’s some commonality
13:05
there and interestingly looking at
13:08
the microbiota of monozygotic and
13:11
dizygotic that side entacle non
13:13
identical twins you know there’s no
13:15
difference so even if you’re an
13:16
identical twin you’ll have similar
13:18
differences in your microbiota to non
13:20
identical twins so what does that mean
13:22
well it means that genes are important
13:24
who you are is important but also the
13:28
nurture the nature the nurturing is also
13:30
important in shaping the microbes but we
13:36
now know that we all have a core
13:39
microbiota so there’s about 57 species
13:42
of bacteria that we all share and there
13:45
are two types that predominate in all of
13:47
us here and not unsurprisingly
13:50
these are concerned because they perform
13:53
important functions such as ones here
13:57
degradation of carbohydrates are
14:00
degrading our plant material we eat they
14:03
also provide these fatty acids that we
14:05
need to keep us alive every day and also
14:08
amino acids and vitamins which we can’t
14:10
produce but our gut bacteria can so it’s
14:13
not surprising there’s a core that all
14:15
of us need to keep us healthy but then
14:17
everything else all the other 800 of
14:21
2,000 species are all unique to us so
14:26
where do they come from well your
14:28
parents in particular your mother so if
14:30
you think you have bad bacteria you can
14:32
blame your parents fully justified okay
14:37
now originally it was thought that we
14:40
were born sterile but that’s changing
14:42
slightly is now evidence that we can in
14:44
fact babies do get exposed in the womb
14:48
to bacteria that the mother has and that
14:50
can be through the placenta and also by
14:53
other routes but by far the biggest
14:55
source or time point at which you get
14:58
exposed to microbes is soon after birth
15:01
because if you believe we are born still
15:04
then the bacteria can colonize very very
15:06
quickly so the first few months after
15:09
birth you’re rapidly being colonized by
15:11
bacteria the types of bacteria depend on
15:14
the delivery so if it’s vaginal delivery
15:17
then most of the microbes that will
15:18
colonize the baby will come from the
15:20
mother
15:21
if it’s a c-section then the bacteria
15:23
actually come from the people in the
15:26
operating theater handling the baby and
15:28
most of those will be skin type bacteria
15:31
and that’s important because there are
15:33
now evidence that links later onset of
15:38
various diseases and disorders back to
15:41
whether or not you are vaginally born or
15:43
from a c-section and the types of
15:45
microbes that initially colonize the
15:46
body other things that will impact on
15:49
the types of microbes that will colonize
15:51
this infant are delivery so it’s a
15:54
normal birth or is it just require
15:57
intensive care the age at birth is also
16:00
important is it a full-term birth or
16:02
preterm birth and hygiene obviously
16:05
where you’re born the home versus the
16:07
hospital at very different population of
16:09
microbes that can colonize the infant
16:11
and then after that things that will
16:15
impact and cause alterations in the
16:17
microbes are antibiotics and again it
16:20
depends on how many what types and for
16:23
how long and also very important is
16:25
nutrition whether or not the infant’s
16:28
breast or bottle fed and again the
16:31
breast milk contains lots of ingredients
16:35
including microbes which can colonize
16:36
that baby and keep them healthy but as
16:41
we go older we get exposed to micro some
16:44
other sources and by different routes so
16:46
via the nose and lungs we breathe
16:48
microbes in the mouth and the gut
16:50
obviously the things we eat and through
16:52
the skin and these are the sources so
16:55
water and the food we eat will contain
16:59
microbes we have pets if we live in a
17:02
farm we’re getting exposed to microbes
17:05
from the animals that we live with where
17:08
we live do we live in the country or do
17:10
we live in the city the population of
17:12
microbes again are very different and
17:15
then the type of accommodation or the
17:17
dwelling that you live in you know is it
17:19
single dwelling is it multi-dwelling all
17:21
these people are contributing microbes
17:23
that will you’ll be exposed to and then
17:28
are you indoors or outdoors are you
17:31
active are you inactive are you an Xbox
17:34
fan
17:34
or are you out playing football these
17:36
things will all expose different types
17:40
of microbes all of these are important
17:42
because beyond three years of age your
17:44
microbiota is pretty much set for life
17:47
so the early years of life are critical
17:50
for the development of a healthy
17:51
microbiota however there are cultural
17:55
things and social things that will also
17:57
impact on the types of microbes that
18:00
that populate us now here’s a fact most
18:04
you probably didn’t know okay
18:09
interesting one to experiment on
18:14
so intimacy and you know it’s across the
18:19
animal kingdom different types of
18:20
interests me transfer of microbes
18:24
grooming it’s another one nurturing food
18:33
sharing right we often sit down at the
18:35
table and eat together and we can be
18:37
sharing food it’s a good way of
18:39
transferring microbes and then there’s
18:42
something that’s slightly less you know
18:45
Pleasant but animals do transfer
18:48
microbes to their offspring via this
18:50
route by regurgitation of food and
18:52
transfer food as well as microbes so the
18:56
message here is if you have some good
18:57
bacteria you need to share it because
19:00
there are some of us poor less fortunate
19:03
people scientists for one right I mean
19:07
my wife is very fond of telling me I
19:09
have very little culture so maybe my
19:11
culture is my bacteria so share your
19:14
good bacteria if you have them right so
19:18
we have our microbiota we’ve been
19:20
exposed we’ve got a stable population
19:22
but it’s not the end of the story they
19:24
do change and here we’ve got a
19:27
representation of aging so here you can
19:30
see these circles the different colors
19:32
represent different types of microbes as
19:33
we age you can see the colours change as
19:36
the populations change and there are
19:39
some differences between formula-fed and
19:41
breastfed babies transition to solid
19:44
food is a big one in terms of shifts in
19:46
microbial populations
19:48
and then you can see as we age there is
19:52
an also shift as well in the population
19:54
ageing has an impact in itself but one
19:58
of the most striking impacts is through
20:00
antibiotic treatment and this slide just
20:04
illustrates the impact of antibiotic to
20:07
antibiotics to treat Clostridium
20:09
difficile which is a severe infection
20:11
that is often acquired in hospital so as
20:15
a result of the outgrowth of this
20:17
bacteria we get sick
20:19
so we administered vancomycin or
20:21
metronidazole and what you can see is
20:24
the diversity the number of bacteria we
20:27
have in our gut is drastically reduced
20:28
because the antibiotics have killed them
20:30
all but it’s also killed off Clostridium
20:33
difficile which is a good thing but you
20:35
know there’s a consequence of this in
20:36
that we’ve wiped out a lot of our good
20:38
bacteria so too many antibiotics for too
20:42
long have a very profound and can be a
20:45
long-lived effect on our microbiota so
20:49
antibiotics could be described as a
20:51
man-made catastrophe however most of the
20:54
antibiotics that are used are used in
20:57
agriculture and in farm animals in
21:00
particular to check infection and solar
21:02
8 growth about 19,000 tons of
21:05
antibiotics are used in agriculture
21:07
every year and of course Antipodes get
21:10
excreted by animals and humans as well
21:12
so they can contaminate streams and
21:15
rivers and then get back into the food
21:16
chain and also giving antibiotics or
21:20
children has its consequences as well so
21:24
in the u.s. by 2 years of age most
21:27
children had at least three courses of
21:29
antibiotics I mean a phenomenal number
21:32
of doses of antibiotics given out in the
21:33
US and what this does is it drives
21:36
bacteria to become resistant and this is
21:39
serious okay so this particular organism
21:43
here mmrsa
21:45
now is resistant to most the antibiotics
21:48
that we have in the pharmacy and more
21:51
than 19,000 people here in the US are
21:54
killed which is much higher than number
21:55
of people dying from AIDS I don’t know
21:57
if you just seen on the news today but
21:59
there’s a UK government
22:01
review group is recommended the
22:03
pharmaceutical and it’s invest two
22:04
billion dollars in developing new
22:06
antibiotics there’s a real need for this
22:09
but one of the causes that we administer
22:11
too many antibiotics we take too many
22:13
antibiotics it leads to resistance
22:17
cautionary tale the other side of the
22:19
story is that gut microbes can actually
22:21
work on drugs rather than been affected
22:23
by drugs they can also work on drugs the
22:26
thing to bear in mind is that the vast
22:28
majority of drugs we take are given
22:29
orally and so the microbes in the gut
22:32
can actually alter the drugs they can
22:36
alter their structure they can produce
22:38
factors that interfere with the drugs
22:40
and they can alter how the body reacts
22:43
to the drugs and here are some examples
22:46
so the bad ones are these drugs here
22:49
which are painkillers anti-cancer drugs
22:52
drugs used to control high blood
22:54
pressure in certain individuals that
22:57
have certain populations of microbes
22:59
administering of these drugs will lead
23:01
to increased toxicity and we some
23:04
antibiotic as well as a similar story
23:06
well there’s a good side to this as well
23:08
in that got microbes can process drugs
23:11
to make them more active more
23:12
efficacious such as this antibiotic here
23:16
and this anti-inflammatory drug so what
23:19
this means is that how you react to a
23:21
drug can depend on the type of microbes
23:24
you have in your gut and one of the
23:26
things that medicine is heading towards
23:27
perhaps is being able to administer or
23:30
prescribe you a drug based on the
23:32
population of microbes in your gut
23:33
because there’s no point in giving you a
23:35
drug that your microbes will make toxic
23:38
you want microbes to actually help the
23:41
drugs become better for you more
23:43
efficacious so this is what’s been
23:46
called personalized medicine the drugs
23:48
will be given to you because you have
23:50
been determined to respond best to those
23:53
drugs so then that brings me to really
23:57
the the meat of my talk here in a way
23:59
and this is what I’m going to try and
24:02
persuade you of that your gut microbes
24:05
can now influence what you eat when you
24:07
eat and what happens when you do eat and
24:09
so I formulated this hypothesis
24:14
that gut microbes influence their hosts
24:17
food choices and I sort of put up three
24:19
predictions in order to prove the
24:22
hypothesis could be correct the first
24:24
one is that the microbes you have in
24:26
your gut is a consequence of the food
24:30
that you eat and how you behave in the
24:32
environment so this interesting so it’s
24:36
not a map of the galaxies it’s actually
24:39
the results of screening them the micro
24:42
biomes in a lots of different animals
24:43
and this is sort of a zoo collection
24:45
each dot represents similar microbiota
24:50
in populations of animals and the lines
24:53
of separation here indicate how similar
24:55
or related they are to other micro
24:59
biomes and other animals so we’ve got
25:01
these sequences we know all the microbes
25:04
and this is how they all cluster so you
25:06
can see different clusters so horses and
25:10
rhinos are up here in their own little
25:12
cluster ruminants such as sheep and cows
25:20
make their own cluster elephants are
25:25
their own little grouping up here and
25:29
then we have the carnivores for the
25:31
lions and bears again they’re a
25:32
different cluster in red and then we
25:35
have leaf eating monkey serve vegetarian
25:37
monkeys and pigs and then the other
25:41
primates humans include we’re here so
25:44
we’re separate from the leaf eating
25:46
monkeys so what does this mean well it
25:50
means that who we are and what we eat
25:52
determines heavily influences the
25:56
microbes that populate our gut and
25:57
that’s reinforced by this study in
26:00
looking at the microbes that are present
26:03
in the gut of people that live in
26:06
Burkina Faso in Africa that have a rural
26:09
diet primarily vegetarian based diet and
26:11
Europeans and this is actually Italians
26:13
have a Western diet you can see just
26:15
looking at the colours they’re very
26:17
different ok and what’s interesting is
26:21
if that people in Africa migrated to
26:24
Europe to Italy and then adopt the
26:27
Western
26:28
they lose this and become this
26:32
distribution of microbes so they haven’t
26:35
changed terms their genes or anything
26:36
all they’ve done is that diets changed
26:38
and it’s causes profound shift in the
26:41
microbes so the diet really is a driving
26:44
force in making up the microbes that you
26:47
have in your gut there’s another example
26:49
this is a Burmese python so they go
26:52
through periods of fasting and then
26:53
feasting just looking at three different
26:56
types of bacteria in the fasting state
26:58
you can see very low levels but if
27:01
they’re given a meal you know within
27:03
half an hour you can see these striking
27:05
chips and expansions and increases in
27:10
certain types of bacteria and these will
27:12
eventually stabilize and then hours of
27:14
the animal goes back into a fasting
27:15
state they will decline again so fasting
27:19
reduces the overall diversity and then
27:22
feasting expands the diversity in
27:25
response to diet it’s a quite striking
27:27
so–that’s diet stress is another thing
27:32
we have to cope with in our environment
27:34
and this is some evidence that links
27:37
stress impacting on our gut microbes so
27:42
noradrenaline norepinephrine and effort
27:44
in which all polyp adrenaline are
27:47
produced in response to stress and that
27:49
can have a direct effect on the bacteria
27:52
that live in our gut and it can cause
27:55
the outgrowth the particular types of
27:56
bacteria so here for example ten
27:59
thousandfold increasing growth in
28:01
response to Adrenaline’s produce under
28:03
stress and surgery is a stress and this
28:08
bacteria here rapidly expands following
28:11
surgery and if it’s not contained then
28:14
it can cause sepsis and mice that get
28:18
exposed to a type of stress rapidly
28:20
change their microbial populations and
28:22
that’s just shown here so these are
28:24
normal animals in most the bacteria
28:26
little circular shapes but then under
28:29
food deprivation which is a form of
28:31
stress you know they rapidly changed the
28:33
rod-shaped bacteria and that was
28:35
observed over 40 years ago so we’ve
28:39
known for a while that stress is a major
28:40
factor
28:41
and then what’s interesting is that
28:45
probiotic bacteria that are present in
28:47
some of these health foods is well for
28:52
Morrison’s and this is Actimel they
28:54
contain bacteria that produce a
28:56
neurotransmitter called gaba and gammas
28:59
normally producing the body what it does
29:01
is it dampens down excitable neurons so
29:05
it relaxes you so and this is being used
29:10
by the pharmaceutical industry to
29:12
develop mimics of gamma so they can
29:14
overstimulate these receptors to make
29:16
you even more relaxed and in fact even
29:19
knock you out
29:21
because anesthetics can work by
29:23
mimicking the gaba that is produced by
29:26
these bacteria so benzodiazepines
29:29
alcohol right we all feel nice and
29:31
relaxed after a glass of wine or a
29:34
bottle of beer well you know one of the
29:36
ways that comes out about is that
29:38
they’re stimulating these receptors that
29:41
gut bacteria can do as well so the gut
29:43
bacteria can already you know hopefully
29:46
take us from a stressful state to a
29:49
relaxed straight state and so one of the
29:54
other things i wanted to highlight here
29:55
was this obesity lots of evidence in the
29:58
literature now and in the newspapers
30:00
that changed in our gut microbes to make
30:03
come acres of obese so gut microbes and
30:07
obesity so very this is a very
30:11
interesting experiment probably the best
30:12
experiment that demonstrates how
30:16
microbes can influence whether or not we
30:19
are be so lean so here we have identical
30:22
twins but one of the twins is obese and
30:25
one is lean so we’ve taken the stool
30:28
sample from each of these extracted the
30:30
bacteria what we’ve done is we put them
30:33
into mice the mice are then put on a
30:36
regular diet low-fat high-carbohydrate I
30:41
mean low-fat high-fiber diet the ones
30:44
that got the mic micros and the obese
30:46
twin become obese but the mice that got
30:50
the microbes from the lean twin stay
30:52
lean so that’s a direct call
30:55
all link okay so that’s not really
30:56
height that’s a bit more close to fact
30:59
so of course it’s my slits not humans
31:01
but this is the best evidence we have to
31:03
date that shows the direct causal link
31:05
between our gut microbes influencing
31:08
whether or not we stay lean or whether
31:10
become obese and then this was in the
31:12
Sunday Times this week this was from a
31:16
study carried out by Tim spectra at
31:18
King’s College London and he fed his son
31:21
I don’t know if his son was a willing
31:23
volunteer a high fat diet for 10 days
31:26
Big Macs and lots of coke and then he
31:31
was taking stool samples before an art
31:32
of it the 10-day diet and what happened
31:35
what he showed was that first of all is
31:37
a reduction in nutrients because he’s
31:39
now eating this very processed refined
31:42
foods there was a loss in number he’s
31:45
got microbes but he gained two kilos in
31:48
weight in just 10 days so the
31:51
interpretation of this is that highly
31:53
processed foods present in Big Macs
31:56
containing grease are toxic to certain
31:59
microbes and this leads to a loss of
32:03
diversity we’re losing microbes because
32:06
of this and if you want to know more
32:08
this individual has produced his book I
32:12
had nothing to do with it so I’m not
32:14
doing buy it or anything but if you want
32:16
to know more these books here so loss of
32:19
diversity is a recurring theme and in
32:22
fact I’ve already said in aging we have
32:25
this loss of diversity we lose richness
32:28
we lose microbes the same in obesity and
32:31
it’s the same in other disease in flicks
32:33
inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s
32:35
disease so the loss of diversity and
32:38
types of Micra 7 I got is not good it
32:42
can have quite profound health effects
32:44
and so it’s not just got diseases all of
32:48
these diseases shown here are linked by
32:51
a common theme in a change or shift in
32:55
the population of microbes in the gut
32:57
and generally that shift means less
33:00
diversity interestingly quite a few are
33:03
linked with diseases of central nervous
33:06
system nearly
33:07
generative diseases the heart the liver
33:11
fat and rheumatoid arthritis there’s
33:14
lots and this is a lot of complete list
33:16
by any means so obviously well is there
33:19
one microbe or one population of
33:21
microbes that can cause these diseases
33:23
so it’s like looking for Waldo found him
33:30
yeah there is the only problem is there
33:38
are lots of Waldo’s and so it’s probably
33:40
not one microbe it’s the combination of
33:43
microbes that when they get together you
33:45
know it’s a bit like a gang of teenagers
33:47
you know they could be rowdy or it can
33:48
be miserable and anti-social so it’s the
33:53
population when they come together that
33:55
they causes or is probably responsible
33:58
for the effects on our health it’s not
34:00
one it’s probably lots okay so moving on
34:04
to the predictions we’re now at the
34:05
second one so gut bacteria can by
34:09
influencing how our body works influence
34:11
our appetite and food preferences so I’m
34:15
sure this is a familiar scenario for
34:17
many of you you know our mind says no
34:19
take the healthy option but there’s
34:21
something inside of us and I really like
34:23
that piece of cake okay and it may be
34:25
that gut feeling you know I really am
34:28
hungry for a piece of pie rather than an
34:31
apple so what is the evidence that
34:35
normal gut microbes can influence brain
34:37
development and behaviors that’s what
34:39
we’re talking about brain development
34:40
behavior so this is next this is a
34:42
summary of an experiment carried out a
34:44
few years ago looking at our germ-free
34:46
mice again these are sterile Mice and
34:48
mice that have populations got microbes
34:51
this here shows the expression of an
34:54
anxiety related gene so the yellow
34:57
identifies high levels in the brains of
35:01
these mice that have got microbes but
35:04
very little expression in germ-free mice
35:06
and this maze here is a measurement of
35:09
how curious adventurous mice are so if
35:13
they’re cautious timid they’ll spend
35:16
most of their time in the enclosed
35:18
section away from the light but if
35:20
they’re adventurous like
35:21
this one you know they’ll be on the open
35:23
arms so what this study showed was that
35:26
gut microbes can affect normal brain
35:29
development and make these mice more
35:33
curious I’m sorry wrong way and perhaps
35:41
more creative and trying to escape
35:44
so it’s this fear extinction you have
35:48
got microbes you become a little bit
35:49
more cautious reticent a little bit more
35:52
anxious if you don’t have got microbes
35:54
you know it’s the Great Escape you’re
35:56
looking for ways out more striking
36:00
experiments this one shown here so we’ve
36:02
got two strains of mice what we’ll call
36:04
timid and adventurous so they’ve got
36:08
microbes of anything to do with why
36:09
these animals are timid or adventurous
36:11
and what we did so not well we did this
36:13
group in Canada did was they took the
36:15
stool from the timid Mouse isolated the
36:18
microbes and put it into an adventurous
36:21
Mouse and that Mouse became timid the
36:25
other way around they took the microbes
36:27
from an adventurous Mouse put it into a
36:31
timid Mouse and these are germ-free mice
36:34
so they’re they’re an empty vessel that
36:35
you can put the microbes into and they
36:37
became now adventurous so this is a
36:40
direct causal link again showing the gut
36:43
microbes can influence the behavior of
36:46
mice at least now is this translatable
36:50
to humans I can see probably some people
36:52
in you always thinking maybe I could
36:54
give this to my husband yeah would he
36:55
still be a grumpy old man if I gave him
36:58
some microbes and would you know if my
37:00
teenage boy had some microbes form you
37:03
know somebody maybe they become bit more
37:05
outgoing bit more social maybe no maybe
37:08
a few years from now maybe I’ll have
37:10
that but not just yet but I mean we
37:14
really shouldn’t be too surprised by
37:15
this because we now know that the gut
37:18
actually contains an awful lot of the
37:20
neurons neural circuitry that’s present
37:22
in the brain and it’s often thought to
37:24
be the second brain I mean it has a very
37:27
large number of neurons 500 million and
37:30
it produces lots of neurotransmitters
37:32
and you know there’s some
37:35
some evidence that sort of links that
37:37
got to the brain so brain-dead people
37:42
their stomach functions normally for
37:43
quite a while it’s almost an inherent
37:45
activity anybody that’s taken paint
37:48
major pain-killing drugs like morphine
37:50
for example you know the risk of
37:52
constipation it shuts down motility in
37:55
your gut and emotions and feeling are
37:58
intimately associate with bowel function
38:00
right we’ve all had their butterflies in
38:02
the stomach that nervous got action well
38:05
that’s all those neurons in your gut
38:07
that are firing away and when you look
38:09
at the structure of the nerves in the
38:11
gut that make up the enteric nervous
38:13
system you know these are the neurons or
38:18
the dendrites here in silver the white
38:20
color this is our gut tissue and you can
38:23
see that when we superimpose these two
38:25
the nerve fibers actually penetrate and
38:28
intermix between all our gut tissue and
38:30
they actually look like they’re actually
38:33
protruding into the lumen to be able to
38:35
sense perhaps the presence of factors
38:38
that they can respond to that are in the
38:40
gut looming that could be made by gut
38:42
microbes and the vagus nerve is
38:46
ultimately this the route by which all
38:49
this signaling in the gut leads into the
38:51
brain so all these signals here that the
38:54
enteric nervous system responds to are
38:57
fed into the brain via the vagus nerve
38:59
and so we know that if the vagus nerve
39:06
is blocked or damaged through injury
39:08
profound effects on appetite and eating
39:12
in fact it causes drastic weight loss so
39:15
it’s clearly a regulator of body weight
39:17
and vagus nerve stimulation by hormones
39:22
and neurotransmitters in the gut could
39:25
drive excessive eating behavior so over
39:27
stimulation is not necessarily good
39:29
thing and not surprisingly gut microbes
39:32
can actually regulate how much of these
39:34
neurotransmitters and hormones are
39:36
produced in the gut and they can
39:38
manipulate this to their own advantage
39:41
by producing things that can block or
39:43
stimulate the
39:45
consistent in the gut so microbes
39:47
control eating behavior by influence
39:49
signals that are delivered to the brain
39:51
and by the vagus nerve and two of the
39:54
most importance of dopamine and
39:56
serotonin so dopamine
39:58
associated rewards pleasure compulsions
40:02
serotonin regulates our mood our memory
40:05
sleep cognition dopamine about half of
40:10
the amount of dopamine producing the
40:11
body is produced in the gut and some gut
40:14
microbes can produce vast amounts of
40:17
dopamine and so you may know that L
40:21
dopamine is used to treat Parkinson’s
40:23
disease serotonin is even more striking
40:26
but virtually all the serotonin the body
40:28
is made in the gut and gut microbes
40:31
produce factors that can mimic or block
40:34
serotonin action in the gut and
40:37
deficiency of serotonin is linked to
40:39
depression so I hope you can see that
40:42
microbes by manipulating just these two
40:45
neurotransmitters can profoundly
40:47
influence our mood behavior whether
40:50
we’re anxious whether relaxed how much
40:52
we sleep how much we eat and so linking
40:58
this to a disease interest this is more
41:00
recent study now linking gut microbes to
41:02
a disease that’s called autism spectrum
41:06
disorder so autism so we know from
41:10
looking at patient’s microbiota is that
41:12
they they have they’re disturbed they
41:15
have alterations the makeup of microbes
41:17
and also there are altered levels of
41:20
what the microbes produce and there’s a
41:23
mouse here that can be can develop
41:26
autism like Syndrome particular
41:28
excessive grooming and vocalization is
41:32
affected as the art as it is in autistic
41:34
children and what this group that works
41:37
with this mouse showed that they could
41:39
restore or treat this mouse by using ant
41:42
probiotics so live bacteria and so the
41:47
live bacteria altered the gut
41:49
composition of the microbes and it
41:50
looked now more like normal animals and
41:53
this was linked to resealing of the gut
41:56
so these animals are leaking
41:58
and it was the leakiness allowing but
42:00
these microbe derived byproducts to get
42:03
into the bloodstream and into the brain
42:04
but as soon as the barrier was improved
42:07
the leakage stopped and it restored the
42:12
normal levels that you would find in
42:13
serum and it stopped or halted some of
42:17
the features of autism so this is animal
42:20
experimentation but it clearly shows
42:22
that it could be a role for alterations
42:25
in gut microbes that are linked to
42:26
neurodegenerative diseases and autism in
42:29
particular so neurotransmitters well
42:33
there are also hormones producing the
42:35
gut which regulate appetite and here
42:38
they said there are appetites that are
42:40
produced to say stop eating you’ve eaten
42:43
too much now we have all we need
42:45
no more tweet and then there are
42:47
hormones it’s signals to the brain state
42:49
we’re hungry you need to eat and it’s
42:52
the balance of these two that determine
42:55
our appetite regulates how much we eat
42:58
when we eat not surprisingly now perhaps
43:01
you think what gut bacteria can alter
43:04
the balance of these hormones and these
43:08
hormones are mainly produced in the gut
43:10
so we know that probiotic bacteria can
43:13
raise the level of this amino acid
43:16
tryptophan and tryptophan is an
43:18
important because it’s involved in
43:20
generating or producing these hormones
43:22
and bacteria that live in the gut can
43:26
produce mimics of some of these hormones
43:30
in for example leptin graylien pyy that
43:35
are influenced your appetite so they can
43:39
influence eating and appetite control
43:41
directly by mimicking the hormones
43:43
normally produced in the gut
43:45
indirectly they can stimulate things
43:47
that will block hormone signaling to
43:50
change your appetite and this is a
43:55
slightly different one this is very
43:57
recent showing how we with this
44:00
information we can actually use it to
44:02
try and redress the balance so here we
44:07
have this chemical here which is
44:09
produced as a result of a break
44:11
digestion of fats is called napes and as
44:15
I said these are naturally producing the
44:16
small bowel as a process of digestion
44:18
lipid digestion obese individuals have
44:22
very low levels compared to normal
44:24
healthy individuals and so what this
44:28
group said well okay what if we engineer
44:30
a bacteria that lives in the gut to
44:31
produce this factor can we then reboot
44:35
increase the levels back to normal and
44:39
so what they show is when they fed these
44:40
bacteria producing this chemical to mice
44:43
you could protect them from becoming
44:45
obese so give them a high fat diet given
44:47
lots of Big Macs
44:48
they stayed lean just by giving bacteria
44:52
that produced this chemical and what’s
44:55
interesting is this persisted for a very
44:58
long time even after the bacteria to
45:00
left the body there was still in effect
45:02
so obviously this could lead to a
45:06
different type of intervention using
45:08
these engineered bacteria as a treatment
45:12
for redressing appetite control and
45:14
maybe even obesity so gut microbes you
45:18
know we can engineer them and we can
45:20
utilize our expertise in work with
45:22
microbes for beneficial effects and you
45:26
know I’ve tried to highlight one or two
45:28
things that microbes produce that
45:29
influence our behavior this is a little
45:31
bit more of a list that shows things
45:33
that impact on our body’s function I’ve
45:36
talked about energy metabolism the
45:38
equity’s factors that help is blood clot
45:40
blood for blood coagulation new
45:43
adjustments I talked about that sleep
45:46
and mood they produce factors that will
45:48
determine how much sleep we take whether
45:50
or not sleeps beneficial and it’s just
45:53
they produce factors that cause bad
45:54
breath so a variety of things that
45:56
impact on our health and behavior so I
46:00
come to the third prediction that there
46:04
is a positive selection system positive
46:07
reinforcement if you like in which the
46:10
type of food we eat selects for specific
46:12
microbes which in turn then feedback on
46:15
making us eat more of that and my
46:18
example here is a seaweed diet so a
46:22
stable diet selects a microbial
46:24
specialists the
46:25
lead to us wanting to eat more of these
46:27
things so there’s two types of seaweed
46:29
Dyer this is one but I’m not going to
46:32
talk about that one I’m going to talk
46:36
about this one okay seaweed now Japanese
46:42
in in Japan vast amounts of seaweed are
46:46
consumed every year about more than four
46:48
kilograms per person but they can
46:52
process and eat seaweed because they
46:55
have genes present in their microbes
46:58
that produce the enzymes that allow them
47:00
to break down the seaweed okay the genes
47:04
originated from bacteria that live on
47:06
the seaweed so as they were consuming
47:09
the seaweed some of those microbes
47:12
stayed in the gut long enough to pass on
47:14
these genes to the normal population of
47:17
microbes in the gut so this microbes
47:22
that contaminated seaweed actually
47:24
transferred some of the beneficial
47:26
enzymes and genes they had to the normal
47:29
population migra’s in their gut so this
47:31
is positive reinforcement because
47:33
seaweed has lots of health benefits the
47:36
exacta fication promotes weight loss
47:38
lowers blood cholesterol so the helps
47:41
reasons to eat it and the more you eat
47:43
the more microbes and genes you have you
47:47
acquire enable you to break it down and
47:49
get maximal nutritional benefit so it’s
47:51
is positive reinforcement but you can
47:54
only do that if you have the microbes
47:57
there and the genes present in the first
47:58
place Japanese population do because
48:02
they consume a lot of that so as another
48:05
type of food preference which is food
48:07
avoidance and food allergy okay
48:10
so food allergies have increased
48:12
dramatically in recent times so more
48:16
than 50% since 1997 and they’ve been
48:19
linked to the modern lifestyle so-called
48:22
hygiene hypothesis overuse of
48:24
antibiotics again destroying of the
48:27
microbiota and so we can sort of look at
48:30
this in more detail using again mice and
48:33
so if we destroy the microbiota in mice
48:35
with antibiotics we can actually
48:38
lick give these mice analogy to peanuts
48:41
just as many children have but if we
48:44
reintroduce one type of bacteria into
48:46
the gut we can actually cure them of
48:48
their allergy and that’s this bacteria
48:50
Clostridium so this is direct evidence
48:53
linking gut microbe activity to food
48:56
avoidance okay and food allergies so not
49:01
only are the microbes that will
49:02
encourage us to eat more there are
49:04
microbes in our gut that will stop us
49:06
from eating things which causes harm
49:08
smart bugs
49:10
really and also sweetness and taste
49:13
again if you look at taste receptors
49:16
that are present on the tongue germ-free
49:19
mice have different types of receptors
49:20
compared to mice that have populated the
49:22
microbes so Joffrey mice have a sweet
49:26
tooth they prefer more sweets and have
49:28
lots more sweet receptors on their
49:30
tongues than mice that have populations
49:35
of michaeles in their gut and so near is
49:37
the knowledge on come to in humans is
49:39
patients that undergo gastric bypass
49:41
surgery for obesity their food
49:44
preference is shift enormously in fact
49:47
they develop avoidance strategies to
49:49
stop eating like some dairy products and
49:51
even meat and this is a company by
49:54
striking change than they got microbes
49:56
as a result of the surgery so microbes
50:00
can influence food preferences by
50:02
altering our taste perception of foods
50:05
so all of this together is summarized
50:09
here so what I’m predicting is that food
50:12
cravings are associated with vagal nerve
50:14
stimulation by blocking that we control
50:17
appetite and we can reduce food cravings
50:20
by altering our gut microbes we can cure
50:24
food cravings and we can cure maybe
50:27
allergies and then the diversity of our
50:31
gut microbiota and what they produce
50:33
should affect food choices and satiety
50:36
okay so if we increase the diversity we
50:39
have a better chance of controlling
50:41
appetite and keeping us healthy and not
50:43
from gaining excessive weight so that’s
50:47
great so how do we actually go about
50:50
changing the
50:51
that live in our gut so this is gut
50:54
microbe therapy which I’m leading to
50:55
lawn care so anything or when’s it going
50:57
to talk about lawn care that’s coming
51:00
right so message to fix your brain you
51:04
need to fix your gut and there are
51:07
different strategies we can use there’s
51:09
the expensive one pharmacy prescription
51:12
of drugs sorry getting a bit ahead of
51:15
ourselves here
51:18
antimicrobial therapy so obviously I’ve
51:21
highlighted some of the issues with
51:23
antimicrobial therapy toxicity can cause
51:27
the outgrowth of pathogens like cross
51:29
stream difficile and we develop
51:32
resistance our bugs would develop
51:33
resistance to the antibiotics and
51:35
they’re not cheap vancomycin however has
51:38
been used for diet induced obesity to
51:40
control diet in use to be so it’s not
51:42
all bad news
51:43
but it’s still expensive other
51:45
approaches rely on biotics Pro and
51:48
prebiotics and then I’m going to talk
51:50
about transplants I there we go I will
51:55
do probiotics there we go live
51:58
microorganisms which when administered
52:01
in adequate amounts confer a health
52:02
benefit that is the w-h-o definition of
52:05
a probiotic they are found in a variety
52:08
of foods these will be most familiar to
52:10
you these are generally for anybody then
52:15
we have ones that are designed for
52:16
children and even pets so you can get
52:19
probiotic to your pets evidence that
52:24
they work or may work so there’s
52:26
evidence that they can decrease food
52:28
intake they can reduce fat mass improve
52:31
insulin sensitivity stop us from
52:33
becoming diabetic yogurt is the food
52:37
that’s most associated with reduce
52:38
weight gain if you think of the things
52:40
that we eat to try and reduce our weight
52:42
yogurt is one of the things we generally
52:44
eat and probiotic treatment in pregnancy
52:48
can prevent excessive weight gain in the
52:51
infant after birth so the other approach
52:55
is prebiotics and prebiotics can be
52:57
suited as food to feed your healthy
53:00
microbes
53:01
and if you go remember back to my gut
53:03
trivia slide I said you need to consume
53:05
50 or 60 grams and these things well
53:08
this is what I’m talking about
53:10
these are the types of food that I will
53:13
fuel provide the fuel for your healthy
53:15
bacteria and there can be in lots of
53:18
things from pre-burn even toothpaste
53:20
contain probiotics prebiotics food for
53:24
your gut bacteria so this is what they
53:26
are generally as I said the different
53:28
types of sugars breast milk is a very
53:31
good source of inulin which is a very
53:33
good prebiotic and then these variety of
53:36
foods here
53:38
but five a day this is one of the reason
53:42
why we keep saying five servings of
53:44
fruit and vegetables a day there are
53:46
very good source of prebiotics to keep
53:48
your gut bugs healthy okay so you can
53:52
take probiotics and you can feed your
53:55
healthy bugs by eating these types of
53:57
foods the more radical approach is okay
54:01
that’s not working let’s get rid of
54:03
everything and replace it so fecal
54:07
microbiota transplantation so this is it
54:11
in a snapshot
54:16
and maybe I’ll cure me a my food
54:18
addiction yeah sounds gross
54:21
God how the hell could this work but it
54:23
does work it works incredibly well for
54:27
treating gut infection against C
54:28
difficile to come up again you know it’s
54:31
a 94 percent cure rate which is much
54:33
much higher than all the drugs and
54:34
antibiotics sounds gross but it works so
54:38
the question why does it work and how
54:40
does it work well that’s something the
54:42
Institute we’re very interested in
54:43
knowing so it works but you might think
54:46
well this is something new I’ve only
54:47
been reading in the Daily Mail for the
54:49
last year or so but in fact it goes back
54:52
a long long way the Chinese were way
54:54
ahead of us so two and a half thousand
54:57
years ago they were giving people yellow
54:58
soup to drink to keep them healthy vets
55:01
have been using it for a couple hundred
55:04
years a post called transformation
55:07
transferring stool from one animal to
55:10
another to keep it healthy first really
55:13
use tested in humans in 1958 it was
55:17
given to four patients there were near
55:19
death from a type of colitis it cured
55:22
all four patients and then since the C
55:25
difficile experiment you know we’ve
55:27
treated over 500 patients no side
55:31
effects whatsoever and success rate is
55:34
incredibly high and it’s stable so as
55:37
far as five years out you know these
55:39
people are still free of Clostridium
55:41
difficile infection so it is very good
55:44
so how do we do it there are several
55:47
options okay there’s the craps you’ll
55:53
there’s you know things you can have
55:56
it’s part of your healthy diet for
55:59
there’s the very more unpleasant way a
56:02
tube and if you go on the internet you
56:05
can get do DIY kits that allow you to do
56:07
this at home
56:08
very scary stuff but you know I think
56:11
we’d all prefer the crap show so what
56:14
are we going to use it for so I’ve said
56:16
you know there’s some obvious diseases
56:17
obesity clearly I’ve shown giving you
56:20
some evidence that got microbes cause
56:22
obesity so if we change our gut microbes
56:24
can we stop us from becoming obese or
56:26
even cause weight loss eating disorders
56:29
again
56:30
showed it as a link between our gut
56:32
microbes and what we eat or what we
56:34
can’t eat so again this could be another
56:36
application autoimmune diseases
56:38
inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s
56:41
disease ulcerative colitis rheumatoid
56:44
arthritis they’re all potential slightly
56:46
more speculative but something we’re
56:48
interested at the Institute in looking
56:49
at can we reverse some of the effects of
56:51
aging ooh not quite sure what that is
56:59
now I don’t want BT burned so yes can we
57:05
reverse the effects of aging so our gut
57:07
microbes change drastically as we age
57:10
and that’s the search of a decline in
57:12
our immune system function we become
57:14
less resistant to infections and we
57:18
mostly some people here probably annual
57:20
flu vaccines right try and boost our
57:22
immunity
57:23
what if we could boost your immunity by
57:25
giving you a crap seal would you rather
57:28
have a needle or a corruption maybe
57:32
maybe we can reverse other signs of
57:34
aging you know maybe ifr we’re rich and
57:37
famous because we’ve got the youth
57:39
capsule yeah Reggie’s taking orders at
57:43
the frontier
57:45
how does it work well this is another
57:48
example of how it works so this is fecal
57:50
microbiota transplant by a nasal gastric
57:52
tube so this is you know the way it’s
57:54
been working so far taking my crinkle
57:57
micros from lean donors given to
57:59
patients with metabolic syndrome these
58:01
are patients at risk of developing
58:02
diabetes six weeks post treatment we can
58:06
clear glucose from the blood and they’re
58:08
now responding to insulin and this is
58:10
associated with a drastic change but
58:13
they got microbes increased diversity
58:16
but with everything that’s always a bunt
58:19
and this is the butt donor selection is
58:22
important this is a very reason a report
58:25
was published 32 year old female with a
58:29
recalcitrant C difficile infection
58:30
remember this is the disease we can cure
58:33
with FM t she decided she wanted to take
58:37
stool cell from her daughter as the
58:40
donor as you probably would a daughter
58:43
was a little overweight
58:44
but she later gained weight and became
58:47
obese the mother 16 months post
58:51
treatment have been given her daughter’s
58:54
microbes got microbes became obese she
59:00
gained excessive weight despite all
59:02
interventions she could not keep the
59:05
weight off and at 36 months she weighed
59:08
80 kilograms a BMI of 34.5 what this led
59:14
in this particular Hospital was a
59:15
complete change in the way donors are
59:17
selected okay so there is the smoking
59:21
gun here obviously the clinicians would
59:23
think well it came from the best patient
59:25
we just transferred the phenotype to the
59:27
mother well maybe but clear there’s a
59:29
link here so what we have to think about
59:31
carefully now is donor selection what is
59:33
the criteria we need to apply to a donor
59:36
in order to be able to use their stool
59:38
sample for a transplant here’s the lawn
59:43
care so if you think about trying to
59:47
keep your gut microbes healthy you know
59:48
here’s our healthy flourishing lon we
59:51
can devastate it with antibiotics you
59:54
know we can just let the weeds grow so
59:56
if we’ve got antibiotics
59:59
you know we might want to give
60:00
prebiotics you know turf food or we
60:04
might want to put new seed down
60:05
probiotics right and then the more
60:08
radical therapy a lawn transplant
60:11
bacterial therapy okay so think of your
60:14
gut
60:15
keeping Elvis lawn care and this is my
60:19
take-home message okay if you have young
60:23
children get them a pet and let them
60:26
roll around in the mud
60:27
let them eat mud you know maximum
60:30
exposure lots of healthy microbes and
60:34
with that I thank you and I’m happy to
60:36
take any questions you might have
60:37
thank you
60:47
you

About Author:

Studied Nutrition and Physical Activity for Health at the University of Pittsburgh.